Read out

ASCOT (German Version)

1. What is ASCOT?

ASCOT (Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit) is composed of a set of survey instruments that be can be used to measure the specific quality of life of adult people (18 years and older) that may be affected by care service provision.

ASCOT aims to improve the assessment and measurement of outcomes of long-term care service provision.

The ASCOT survey instruments were developed in order to study the effects of care services on the quality of life of service users and their informal carers.

With ASCOT, the following questions can be answered:

  • “What is the quality of life of people using care services?”

  • “What is the quality of life of informal carers (relatives and non-kin) of care service users?”

  • “How do care services impact on service users’ quality of life?”

  • “How do care services (and/or services for informal carers) impact on informal carers’ quality of life?”

  • “In which areas of life do care services improve the quality of life, and in which areas is there room for improvement?

  •  

back

2. Who developed ASCOT? Who translated ASCOT into German?

ASCOT (Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit) was developed by the PSSRU (Personal Social Service Research Unit) at the University of Kent (England, U.K.). As part of the EXCELC (“Exploring Comparative Effectiveness and Efficiency in Long-Term Care”) project, the ASCOT team at the WU Vienna University of Economics and Business (Austria), in cooperation with Corporate Translations, Inc., translated ASCOT into German. The PSSRU’s ASCOT team at the University of Kent authorised the translation and advised the Austrian translation team throughout the process.

The ASCOT team at the Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU) is led by Dr Birgit Trukeschitz (WU Research Institute for the Economics of Aging); Assma Hajji, Judith Kieninger, Judith Litschauer, Tobias Krüse, Adiam Schoch and Meika Sternkopf assisted with the translation, cultural adaptation (including cognitive interviews) and/or contributed to validate the translated instruments.

back

3. What does SCT4 and INT4 mean? Which instrument is best suited for my purpose?

The self-completion tool (or “SCT4” for short) is an ASCOT survey instrument designed to be completed by the respondents without support of the person collecting the data. “INT4” is the interview version of this survey instrument designed for standardized personal interviews. The decision as to which instrument is best to use depends on the survey method and the objective of the data collection.

SCT4, the survey instrument designed for self-completion, assesses the current quality of life (taking into account care and care services). The data collected with the SCT4 version can therefore be used to evaluate the status quo of the living situation.

INT4, the survey instrument for a standardized personal interview, assesses both the current quality of life (taking into account care and nursing services) and the quality of life that would be expected if no care services were available. In addition to the status quo (of the quality of life), the data collected with the ASCOT INT4 version can also be used to calculate the effect or impact of care services on quality of life.

back

4. For which target groups can the German version of the ASCOT instruments be used?

Care service users: ASCOT SCT4/INT4

The ASCOT SCT4 and ASCOT INT4 questionnaires can be used to determine the quality of life of people who receive care services. These survey instruments each cover 8 areas of life (“domains”): “Control over daily life”, “Personal cleanliness comfort”, “Food and drink”, “Personal safety”, “Social participation and involvement”, “Occupation”, “Accommodation cleanliness and comfort” and “Dignity”. For a definition of the ASCOT domains in German, see Trukeschitz et al. 2018.

Informal carers (relatives, friends, neighbours): ASCOT-Carer SCT4/INT4:

With the ASCOT-Carer SCT4 and ASCOT-Carer INT4 questionnaire set, the quality of life of informal carers (relatives and non-kin) is assessed. These survey instruments each cover 7 areas of life (“domains”): “Occupation”, “Control over daily life”, “Personal care”, “Personal safety”, “Social participation and involvement”, “Space and time to be yourself” and “Feeling supported and encouraged”. For a definition of the ASCOT-Carer domains in German, see Trukeschitz et al. (2018).

back

5. When to use ASCOT SCT4 and INT4 or other ASCOT instruments?

As long as the interviewees are able to fill out the questionnaire themselves or to take part in the personal standardized interview, the ASCOT self-completion questionnaires (ASCOT SCT4 and ASCOT-Carer SCT4) and the ASCOT interview versions (ASCOT INT4 and ASCOT-Carer INT4) can be used. It is possible to administer the ASCOT versions SCT4 und INT4 without training the fieldworkers in data collection.

If the respondents’ ability to contribute in data collection is limited, ASCOT CH3 may be more appropriate. ASCOT CH3 was developed for use in care homes and combines different methods. ASCOT CH3 is currently not available in a German version. Please note that data collection using ASCOT CH3 requires a training of the fieldworkers by the ASCOT team. This training is currently provided by the ASCOT team at the University of Kent in English only.

back

6. What do the German ASCOT survey instruments look like?

Below you will find samples from the German ASCOT survey instruments. The complete survey instrument can only be viewed after receiving a license (see below).

SCT4 – The self-completion questionnaire.

  • ASCOT SCT4 instrument for people who receive care/support services

    • the sample shows three out of eight questions 

  • ASCOT-Carer SCT4 instrument for informal carers

    • the sample shows three out of seven questions 

  •  

INT4 – Version for a standardized personal interview.

  • ASCOT INT4 instrument for people who receive care/support services

    • the first sample shows the first page of the introduction

    • the second sample shows the three questions of the domain "Control over daily life" (each of the eight domains has three questions)

  • ASCOT Carer INT4 instrument for informal carers

    • the first sample shows the first page of the introduction

    • the second sample shows the three questions of the domain "Occupation" (each of the seven domains has three questions)

  •  

back

7. How can ASCOT results be presented?

There are several options for descriptive presenting the results of the data collected with ASCOT:

a) Presentation of the ASCOT quality of life areas (domains):

ASCOT Bar Chart

  • If you have collected data using the SCT4 version of ASCOT (self-completion questionnaire), you can map the individual’s current quality of life (with care services). The current QoL reflects the individual’s situation with the care services they are receiving (status quo).

  • If you have collected data using the INT4 version of ASCOT (for standardized personal interviews), in addition to the status quo, you can also map the quality of life that would be expected if the respondents did not receive any care services.

  •  

For Austria, the ASCOT result display (in the form of bar graphs) looks as follows:

[Translate to English:] ASCOT Balkendiagramm Österreich

ASCOT Spider-web diagram

The ASCOT Spider-web diagram has the advantage that – if data were collected with the INT4 version of ASCOT – both values (the status quo and the expected quality of life without care service) can be displayed jointly in one graph. In addition, the effect of the care services on the domains of quality of life can be read directly from the graph. For Austria, the result display (in the form of an ASCOT Spider-web diagram) looks as follows:

[Translate to English:] ASCOT Spinnennetzdiagramm Österreich

b) Calculation of the ASCOT score (SCRQoL/LTCQoL):

The ASCOT score reflects the individual’s overall quality of life over all ASCOT domains. In English publications, the terms “social care related quality of life (SCRQoL)” or “long-term care related quality of life (LTCQoL)” are used.

The ASCOT score can be calculated for the status quo of quality of life (when using the INT4 or the SCT4 versions). In the case of data collected with the INT4 version of ASCOT, the ASCOT score can also be calculated for the expected quality of life, which captures the quality of life in the hypothetical case of the absence of care services. Therefore, it is possible to use these two values to determine the effect or impact of the care service(s) on the quality of life.

There are two methods available for calculating the ASCOT scores:

For the ASCOT score, domain-specific scores are summed up for each respondent and rescaled to lie between zero and one (unweighted ASCOT score). Alternatively, preference weights can be used instead of the raw domain-specific scores (weighted ASCOT score). ASCOT scores with preference weights take into account that the conditions associated with the different areas of quality of life may differ in importance. For example, an ideal state in the “food and drink” domain is not necessarily as important (or “valued” as much) as an ideal state in the “control over daily life” domain. This attributed value is, therefore, reflected in the preference weights. While the unweighted ASCOT score assumes that all domains are equally important, the weighted ASCOT score also takes into account the preference of the population. The choice of the score (weighted or unweighted) is thus dependent on the research question.

back

8. What publications are currently available for the German version of ASCOT?

Translation into German and construct validity of the German ASCOT

NEW: Trukeschitz Birgit, Litschauer Judith, Hajji Assma, Kieninger Judith, Schoch Adiam, Malley Juliette, Rand Stacey, Linnosmaa Ismo and Forder Julien (2020) Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Construct Validity of the German Version of the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit for Service Users (German ASCOT). Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 18:326, 1-19

Translation into German and construct validity of the German ASCOT-Carer

Trukeschitz, Birgit; Hajji, Assma; Litschauer, Judith; Malley, Juliette; Schoch, Adiam; Rand, Stacey; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Forder, Julien (accepted for publication) Translation, Cultural Adaptation and Construct Validity of the German Version of the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit for Informal Carers (German ASCOT-Carer). Quality of Life Research – link to the paper will be provided when published


Quality of life of home care service users – summary of results for Austria:

Trukeschitz, Birgit; Hajji, Assma; Litschauer, Judith; Kieninger, Judith; Linnosmaa, Ismo.2018. Wie wirken sich Pflegedienste auf die Lebensqualität aus? [How do care services affect quality of life?] Trendreport 1/2018, 20.06.18 (Report in German only)
 

Factors influencing the effects of home care services on service users’ quality of life in Austria, England and Finland

Trukeschitz Birgit, Hajji Assma, Kieninger Judith, Malley Juliette, Linnosmaa Ismo and Forder Julien (accepted for publication) Investigating factors influencing quality-of-life effects of home care services in Austria, England, and Finland: a comparative analysis. European Journal of Social Policy – link to the paper will be provided when published
 

Which areas of life are important to people in Austria in case of care dependency (preference weights for ASCOT SCT4 and INT4 for Austria):

Hajji, Assma; Trukeschitz, Birgit; Malley, Juliette; Batchelder, Laurie; Saloniki, Elrini; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Lu, Hui.2020. Population-based preference weights for the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) for service users for Austria: Findings from a best-worst experiment. Social Science and Medicine. 250 (112792), 1-10.

EXCELC-ASCOT INT4: study design and descriptives - Austria

Trukeschitz Birgit, Litschauer Judith, Kieninger Judith, Hajji Assma, and Schoch Adiam (2018): Study Design and Descriptive Statistics for the Austrian Sample of Adult Users of Home Care Services, EXCELC-Discussion Paper No. 2/2018 and Discussion Paper No. 4/2018 of the WU Research Institute for Economics of Aging, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria.

EXCELC-ASCOT-Carer INT4: study design and descriptives - Austria

Trukeschitz Birgit, Litschauer Judith, Kieninger Judith, Hajji Assma, and Schoch Adiam (2018): Study Design and Descriptive Statistics for the Austrian Sample of Informal Carers, EXCELC-Discussion Paper No. 3/2018 and Discussion Paper No. 5/2018 of the WU Research Institute for Economics of Aging, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria.

back

9. Can I use the German version of ASCOT in other projects?

No. ASCOT may only be used for the project / study or purpose for which the licence was granted. If you want to use ASCOT for other projects, studies or purposes, you have to apply for a new licence.

back

10. Can the German version of ASCOT be used with (online) survey software and/or integrated in data collections using other instruments?

Yes. Both the use of (online) survey software and the integration of ASCOT questionnaires in multi-topic surveys is allowed. We would also strongly advise that you keep the ASCOT questions as a block of questions and do not change their order. For information on how to incorporate the copyright notice, see here.

back

11. Can I change the order or amend the wording of the ASCOT questions and/or response options?

No. The original English version and the culturally adapted German version of ASCOT have been tested thoroughly. Making changes to these will jeopardise the validity and integrity of the survey instruments.

back

12. Can I include any German-language ASCOT survey instruments (full set of questions) in publications?

No. The developers and translator of ASCOT wish the instruments to be used widely in long-term care settings to promote an outcomes approach in long-term care practice, policy and research. However, it is important that any quotations of the ASCOT questions in publications do not violate the intellectual property, which belongs to the developers (members of the Personal Social Services Unit at the University of Kent) and the translator into German (WU Vienna). Therefore, including the full ASCOT instruments (e.g. a complete set of questions from the ASCOT SCT4/ASCOT-Carer SCT4 or ASCOT INT4/ASCOT-Carer INT4) in publications would be considered a breach of the copyright and intellectual property.

Authors should provide a fair and reasonable representation of the ASCOT instruments used in their research or practice. Quoting the first and the last ASCOT domain will give the reader a good understanding of the ASCOT.

  • ASCOT: “Control over daily life“ und „Dignity"

  • ASCOT-Carer: “Occupation” und “Feeling encouraged and supported“

  •  

These requirements for representing the German version of ASCOT also apply for publications in English. Please note that in English publications the wording of the original English ASCOT survey instruments has to be used (no separate translation from German into English).

back

13. How should the copyright notice be integrated into surveys using the German version of ASCOT?

Use of the original paper questionnaires of German version of ASCOT

If you use the original paper questionnaires of the German version of ASCOT, the following copyright notice in German is already included on the last page (here the example for ASCOT SCT4):

“© 2020 WU, Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (autorisierte Übersetzung des englischen Originals ASCOT-Carer INT4; © University of Kent. Alle Rechte vorbehalten)

Der Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT), zu dem dieses Erhebungsinstrument gehört, wurde von MitarbeiterInnen der Personal Social Services Research Unit (PSSRU) der University of Kent entwickelt. Dieses Erhebungsinstrument wurde vom ASCOT-Team der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (WU) ins Deutsche übersetzt. Die Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (WU) ist Eigentümerin des Urheberrechts an der deutschen Übersetzung von ASCOT.

Die nicht-kommerzielle Nutzung der deutschsprachigen Version von ASCOT ist kostenfrei, jedoch ist eine Lizenz erforderlich. Die kommerzielle Nutzung der deutschsprachigen Version von ASCOT ist mit einer Gebühr verbunden. Für Informationen, wie eine Lizenz zu erhalten ist und bei weiteren Fragen, wenden Sie sich bitte an das ASCOT-Team der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (ascot-deutsch@wu.ac.at).

Die University of Kent und die Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien behalten sich das Recht vor, gegen eine unautorisierte und unlizenzierte Verwendung der deutschsprachigen Version von ASCOT vorzugehen, unabhängig davon, ob es sich um eine kommerzielle oder nicht-kommerzielle Verwendung von ASCOT handelt.“

Multi-topic surveys and use of the German ASCOT instruments in an online-survey software:

If the German version of ASCOT is integrated into a survey that has several topics, the beginning of the ASCOT questions must be clearly marked with the heading “ASCOT” and at least the short copyright notice (see below) must be included at the end of the ASCOT section of the survey (example for ASCOT-Carer SCT4):

“© 2020 WU, Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (autorisierte Übersetzung des englischen Originals ASCOT-Carer INT4; © University of Kent. Alle Rechte vorbehalten)

In order to ensure that respondents are not influenced or distracted, we recommend including the entire copyright notice at the end of the survey, along with any other references or copyright notices. This procedure also applies to data collection with online-survey software.

back

14. Which references should be included when publishing data that was collected using the German version of ASCOT?

If you publish results that contain data collected using one of the German versions of the ASCOT survey instruments, please refer to the following references:
 

General ASCOT:

Netten A, Burge P, Malley J, Potoglou D, Towers A, Brazier J, Flynn T, Forder J, Wall B (2012) Outcomes of Social Care for Adults: Developing a Preference-Weighted Measure, Health Technology Assessment, 16, 16, 1-165 .
 

German version of ASCOT SCT4 and INT4:

NEW: Trukeschitz, Birgit; Litschauer, Judith; Hajji, Assma; Kieninger, Judith; Schoch, Adiam; Malley, Juliette; Rand, Stacey; Linnosmaa, Ismo and Forder, Julien (2020) Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Construct Validity of the German Version of the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit for Service Users (German ASCOT), Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 18:326, 1-19
 

German version of ASCOT-Carer SCT4 and INT4:

Trukeschitz, Birgit; Hajji, Assma; Litschauer, Judith; Kieninger, Judith; Linnosmaa, Ismo. 2018. How do care services affect quality of life? Trendreport 1/2018, 20.06.18
 

Descriptions of  the quality-of-life domains of the German ASCOT and the German ASCOT-Carer

Trukeschitz, Birgit; Hajji, Assma; Litschauer, Judith; Kieninger, Judith; Linnosmaa, Ismo. 2018. How do care services affect quality of life? Trendreport 1/2018, 20.06.18
 

ASCOT preference weights for Austria to calculate the quality-of-life scores of care service users:

Hajji, Assma; Trukeschitz, Birgit; Malley, Juliette; Batchelder, Laurie; Saloniki, Eirini; Linnosmaa, Ismo; Lu, Hui.2020. Population-based preference weights for the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT) for service users for Austria: Findings from a best-worst experiment. Social Science and Medicine. 250 (112792), 1-10.
 

ASCOT preference weights for Austria to calculate the quality-of-life scores of informal carers:

Not published yet – for information contact ascot-deutsch@wu.ac.at
 

back

15. Is a licence absolutely necessary to use ASCOT?

Yes. A licence is required to use the German version of ASCOT.

back

16. How do I get a licence to use the German version of ASCOT?

A licence is required to use the German version of ASCOT. Please note that the licence is only ever granted for a specific (research) project or study.

In addition, these terms and conditions apply to the use of the German version of ASCOT.

The licence for the non-commercial use of the German version of ASCOT is free of charge. In this case, non-commercial use means that the German version of ASCOT is used for the benefit of the public without financial gain. Examples of non-commercial use include but are not limited to non-commercial research projects or care organizations in the nonprofit sector or the public sector.

For the commercial use of the German version of ASCOT, a fee is required. In this context, commercial use includes but is not limited to any use that supports the generation of revenue or use by for-profit organisations. For information on the licence fee, please contact ascot-deutsch@wu.ac.at.

In the case that it is unclear whether the proposed use of ASCOT requires a commercial or non-commercial licence, please first contact WU (ascot-deutsch@wu.ac.at) before applying for a licence. Please provide details on the planned use, on the proposed project/study and on the organisation applying for the licence.

If you would like to obtain a licence for the German version of ASCOT, please fill in the online registration form. Please note that this form can only be completed by a person who has the authority to consent to the terms and conditions of the ASCOT licence on behalf of their organisation.

back

17. How do I get a licence for ASCOT in languages other than German?

ASCOT is currently also available in English (original version), Dutch, Finnish and Japanese. For more information and on how to obtain a licence for these versions of ASCOT, see the ASCOT Website of PSSRU at the University of Kent.
back

For further information on ASCOT please see here.