Garagenaufgang zwischen dem AD und D4 Gebäude

City Tolls That Work


City tolls are widely recognised as an effective policy measure to fight congestion and decrease the negative environmental impacts of car traffic in cities. However, due to their low public acceptability, only few cities (including London, Stockholm and Gothenburg) have implemented them. The main public concern is usually that tolls lack fairness, affecting some population groups more negatively than others. Based on unique Swedish data, we measure to what extent this concern is justified. Moreover, we propose and investigate innovative road-pricing schemes with cash-back components that might have both substantial public support and a positive welfare effect.



April 2023

Expected end:

October 2025


Project partners:

Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU), Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies (BICEPS), Dolphin Technologies

Co-operation partners:

VCÖ, Swedish Confederation of Transport Enterprises (SCTE), Stockholm City Council (SCC), Transport Analysis (Tara)


This project is funded by the FGG as part of the ERA-NET co-financing of the "Urban Accessibility and Connectivity (ENUAC)" program.


Stefanie Peer