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Abgeschlossene Projekte

EQUALdigitalent - Promotion of Gender Equality in Digital Entrepreneurship

Project Duration: September 1st, 2016 - August 31th, 2019

Unfortunately, the disruptive power of new digital technologies appears to be limited to technology and business models and has not yet impacted the issue of gender diversity. Digital entrepreneurship and the media industry are faced by a stagnation of women in leadership positions and the continued depletion of female technology talent. For the digital economy to truly reach its potential, the gender imbalance must be confronted and addressed at all levels of the society. Higher Educational Programs are important social and economic change agents towards gender equality and diversity. The primary goal of the project is therefore to develop a master programme curriculum for digital entrepreneurship in application of innovative gender mainstreaming approaches. Taking into consideration findings from feminist (media) economics, entrepreneurship and information systems on the gendered structures of entrepreneurship and information systems, the project aims to contribute to the successful innovation and commercialization of digital goods and services and the creation of businesses that will enact gender equality at all levels of the society and the economy.

The main deliverables of the project comprise a fully gendered reference curriculum for digital entrepreneurship including didactical guidelines, physical and virtual course materials.

The project will be carried out by a consortium of the University of Liechtenstein, the Berlin School of Economics and Law (HWR), the Vienna University of Economics and Business (WU) and the Catholic Social Academy of Austria (KSOE). The key participants

Prof. Heike Wiesner (Berlin School of Economics and Law)

Prof. M. Tomenendal (Berlin School of Economics and Law)

Prof. Andrea Grisold (Vienna University of Economics and Business)

Mag.a Margit Appel (Catholic Social Academy of Austria)

all have vast experience in the design, implementation and evaluation of higher educational curricula and programs and contribute expert knowleedge in their specific disciplines including business administration, entrepreneurship, economics, information systems, digital technologies and political science.

Education and training are key to empower women in the digital age and to foster a society with future viability. Thus, the project is designed to have a strong impact on the higher education in the field of entrepreneurship by training and enabling female and male student to become leading digital entrepreneurs and to commit themselves to the closing of the existing gender gap in the digital economy.

Gendered economic inequality in Evolution

Projektdauer: 01.02. - 31.07.2019

This paper considers how government policies influence the distribution of work within a household. In particular, it looks how the institutions of marriage, alimony, and joint taxation affect a couple's decision to engage in a division of labor in paid and unpaid work. The analysis uses the case of the somewhat sporadically granted rights for same-sex couples to marry, access alimony, and file income taxes jointly to see how the couples changed their work patterns when they were given access to those institutions. These new rights were granted intermittently across states and years starting in 2000; in 2015, the process was complete following the Obergefell v. Hodges case that granted same-sex couples in all states the right to all three institutions. This research exploits this quasi-experimental structure of timing differences to legal changes across states to investigate if these changes had an effect on the extent to which same-sex couples engage in a division of labor.

The paper is thus important because it analyzes how social and economic policy affect couples' work choices. Economic theory on the family and the household suggests that it is efficient for individuals in a couple to specialize in either paid work (on the labor market) or unpaid work (in the household, including care work) and then trade with a partner, who does the other type of work (Becker 1965, 1985, 1991). The theory predicts that in different-sex couples, this division is biologically predetermined: because women carry and bear children, they will have a natural comparative advantage in care work. The optimal division of labor, then, is for the woman to specialize in unpaid work and for the man to specialize in paid work. Indeed empirical research from the U.S. using labor force and time-use surveys shows that men in heterosexual couples perform about 60\% of the total paid work, while women perform 63\% of the unpaid and care work (BLS, 2018). Interestingly, although there is no biologically predetermined reason for this to be the case, people in same-sex couples also engage in a household division of labor (Schneebaum, 2013). (In Schneebaum (2013), I use the distinction between biological sex and social gender, where the latter refers to the social norms and characteristics assigned based on biological sex, to make the point that the division of labor in same-sex couples implies that the so-called (biological) "sexual division of labor" is instead a (socially-determined) gender division of labor.) The degree of the division of labor in same-sex couples is lower than it is for different-sex couples, though the gap did narrow between 1990-2010 (Giddings et al. 2014).

This study in this project builds on the literature on the household division of labor to examine if couples change their specialization decision upon being granted access to legal institutions which could offer some protection and/or incentive to specialize, using same-sex couples in the U.S. as a case study. It employs the fact that individual states in the U.S. started granting same-sex couples access to alimony rights, the right to marry, and the right to file taxes jointly beginning as far back as 2000; each year, more states extended these rights to their citizens until nation-wide legislation was passed in 2015 which granted marriage rights (and thus also access to alimony and joint income tax filing) to all remaining same-sex couples.

Projektleitung: Ass. Prof. Alyssa Schneebaum, PhD

References

Becker, Gary, \A Theory of the Allocation of Time," The Economic Journal, 1965, 75 (299), 493{517.

- Human Capital, E ort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, 1985, 3 (1), S33{S58.

- A Treatise on the Family, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991.

Blau, Francine D., Mary C Brinton, and David B. Grusky, eds, The Declining Signi cance of Gender?, New York: The Russell Sage Foundation, 2015.

Crenshaw, Kimberle W., \Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine," Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics, University of Chicago Left Forum, 1989, pp. 139{67.

Davis, Kathy, \Intersectionality as a Buzzword: A Sociology of Science Perspective on What Makes a Feminist Theory Successful," Feminist Theory, 2008, 9 (1), 67{85.

Esping-Andersen, Gsta, Social Foundations of Postindustrial Economies, Oxford: Oxford Uni- versity Press, 1999.

Giddings, Lisa, John Nunley, Alyssa Schneebaum, and Joachim Zietz, \Birth Cohort and the Specialization Gap Between Same-Sex and Di erent-Sex Couples," Demography, 2014, 51, 509{534.

Goldin, Claudia, \The Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family," Technical Report 11953, NBER Working Paper 2006.

- A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter," The American Economic Review, 2014, 104 (4), 1091{1119.

Schneebaum, Alyssa, \The Economics of Same-Sex Couple Households: Essays on Wages, Work, and Poverty." PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts-Amherst 2013.

- Marriage Rights and the Household Division of Labor," Presentation at WU Vienna Depart- ment of Economics Research Seminar 2017.

US Bureau of Labor Statistics, \American Time Use Survey - 2015 Results," www. bls.gov/news.release/pdf/atus.pdf 2016.

Zur Vermittlungsrolle von Massenmedien und Ökonomie am Thema „Ungleichheit“.

Laufzeit: März 2016 bis November 2017

Die Piketty-Rezeption Forschungsprojekt finanziert von Jubiläumsfonds der OeNB Die letzten Jahre waren geprägt von einer ‚Pikettymania‘; einer untypisch intensiven medialen Debatte um das Buch „Capital in the 21st Century“ (Piketty 2014). Das Buch wurde als „Sensation des Jahres“ betitelt, Piketty selbst fortlaufend als „Rockstar-Ökonom“ (Financial Times, 23. Mai, 2014) oder auch „Meisterdenker“ (Süddeutsche Zeitung, 17. Mai, 2014). Untypisch ist an dieser Debatte, dass das wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Buch nicht nur in ökonomischen Fachpublikationen und wissenschaftsnahen Blogs, sondern auch in den Massenmedien breit rezipiert und diskutiert wurde. Dies ist umso frappierender, wenn berücksichtigt wird, dass das Buch erstens medienunfreundliche 700 Seiten lang ist, und zweitens mit dem Thema der ökonomischen Ungleichheit ein Feld behandelt wird, welches lange nicht im Zentrum der medialen Öffentlichkeit stand.

Genau dieser ‚Piketty-Hype‘ ist Ausgangspunkt dieses Forschungsprojekts, welches der Frage nachgeht, wie die mediale Rezeption von ökonomischen Themen allgemein und Fragen ökonomischer Ungleichheit in spezifischen vonstatten geht. Die breite und kontroverse Rezeption ist als ein ideales Fallbeispiel dafür anzusehen, wie die Intermediation zwischen wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen und der Öffentlichkeit verläuft. Primärer Gegenstand des Forschungsprojekts ist die mediale Vermittlung des Buchs, damit die Frage, wie Inhalte des Buchs dargestellt, präsentiert und diskutiert werden. Um diese Berichterstattung in ihren Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschieden beleuchten zu können, wird die Rezeption des Buches in ausgewählten Printmedien in vier Ländern (Österreich, Deutschland, Irland und Großbritannien) untersucht. Damit stehen sowohl die Framings und Interpretationen vor dem Hintergrund der politisch-ökonomischen Ereignisse in den einzelnen Ländern im Zentrum des Forschungsinteresses, als auch die Frage, wie die jeweilige (oder hegemoniale) Ausrichtung der untersuchten Medien die mediale Vermittlung beeinflussen.

Neuartig ist unser Forschungsansatz, weil Elemente der ökonomischen mit der kommunikationswissenschaftlichen Disziplin verbunden werden und außerdem die diskursanalytische Methode explizit für ökonomische Fragen aufbereitet wird. Ein kurzer Blick in den Stand der Forschung zeigt die Notwenigkeit dieses Projekts: Auf der einen Seite findet sich eine breite Literatur aus dem Bereich der Medienökonomie, die allerdings im methodologischen Individualismus verbleibt und sogenannten Media Bias hauptsächlich auf politisches Wahlverhalten hin analysiert. Andererseits sind Studien zur kritischen Diskursanalyse oft gekennzeichnet von politischen, aber keinesfalls ökonomischen Themen, da diese Methode so gut wie nie von ÖkonomInnen angewandt wird. Der Tradition der kritischen Diskursanalyse folgend, wählt dieses Projekt einen qualitativen Zugang, der sich explizit und erstmals mit der medialen Vermittlung von Ungleichheitsthemen auseinandersetzt.

Das Forschungsprojekt ist angesiedelt am Institut für Institutionelle und Heterodoxe Ökonomie an der Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien (Leitung: Univ.Prof. Dr. Andrea Grisold, Mitarbeit: Hendrik Theine, MSc) und wird durchgeführt in Kooperation mit der School of Communications der Dublin City University (Professor Paschal Preston) sowie der School of Culture and Communication der University of Limerick (Dr. Henry Silke).